Local History

Newnham St Peter’s church stands on high ground and if you venture up to it, you can see the horseshoe bend of the Severn. Unfortunately the church was partially destroyed by fire in 1881 but later in the year, it was rebuilt and re-opened for worship.newnham1

Newnham’s history is closely linked with the river Severn. In Roman times, three important roads (including the major military coast road) converged on Newnham and a ford existed, linking the forest with the Roman road network on the east side or the Severn.

The only known Roman settlement was a villa on the road leading up towards Littledean, it is likely that Newnham was in use as a port by this time and some waterfront facilities existed. By Saxon times, a small hamlet had grown up centred on a manor at Stears but it was only after the Norman Conquest that Newnham really established itself, for by the late medieval period it had grown into an important port with trading links to Ireland, London, Bristol and the Midlands.

One of the most important historical events at Newnham occurred in 1171 when Henry II sailed from the town with an army to invade Ireland. One account of this event stated that Henry’s invasion force consisted or 400 ships and some 5,000 men which implies that the town was by this time large enough to house, feed and provide the necessary supplies for such a prestigious expedition. After this , Newnham’s importance’s and trade continued to grow and it reached a peak in the late 18th century, when it had become one of the most important ports in the area, specialising in transshipment of cargo up and down the Severn. By this time it was the chief town in Gloucestershire west of the Severn had one of the most wealthy, being the focus of coaching routes and roads, but he growth of the railways caused a massive decline in the town’s trade and, after the Gloucester-Sharpness Canal opened in 1827 Newnham’s history as a port came to an end and the town declined rapidly, although its ferry remained in use until after WW2.newnham2Newnham has many fine large stone buildings, most of which were built with money generated by the town’s maritime trade. These include the 18th century. Victoria Hotel, 19th century. Town Hall, the old Bear Inn (a coaching inn used by people crossing the river on the ferry) and at the north end of the town, Unlawater house (16th / 18th century) but historically, the most notable structures are the quay Warehouses and Newnham Quay, which were built c1755 by a local shipping entrepreneur, Robert Pyrke. When completed, the quay was over 150ft long and 20ft high and although buried in the riverbank it is one of the most important surviving maritime structure in Dean.

Little in the way of industry existed at Newnham apart from a tannery, but in the early 17th century, Sir Edward Mansell erected a glass furnace at the Northern end of the town which was the first in the country to be fired by coal. This had closed by 1700 and although no remains exist today, many of the cottages Church Street were partly built from blocks of hard, black slag from the furnace.

Newnham appears to have been fortified in Norman times to restrain the intrusions of the Welsh. The fortification on the South probably have Norman roots and the ramparts at the back of the village may date from the times of the Civil Wars when Newnham was garrisoned for the King by Sir John Wintournewnham4

Newnham had a chapel of ease by 1018 but the church only attained full parochial status in the 14th century, by which time it was in danger of being undermined by the River Severn. In 1366 a new church was dedicated and built on a fresh site further to the west. Both the church and castle were captured from the Royalists by Colonel Massey in 1644. During the commotion, the Royalists exploded a powder keg in the church causing a great deal of damage. The tower was given new battlements in the 19th century. Unfortunately the church was partially destroyed by fire in 1881 but later in the year, it was rebuilt and re-opened for worship.

Newnham Salmon Hut

Information about the local History Group